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The Internet : A Timeline in History


Internet Timeline

1945
• Vannevar Bush proposes MEMEX, a system to store vast amounts of information, with the ability for users to create their own paths and links.
1958
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) is formed to ensure US technological leadership.
SAGE developed by ARPA to receive continuous information through computer memory from telephone lines.
1961
• The first paper on packet-switching theory.
• Berlin Wall constructed.
1962
ARPA forms Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO) to conduct research on command and control systems.
1965
• Term *hyper-text* appears in Vassar news article.
1968
• Integrated Electronics Corp (Intel) founded.
1969
• First node of ARPANET is established at UCLA, followed by nodes at Stanford, UCSB, and the University of Utah.
1971
ARPANET now consists of 15 nodes.
Project Gutenberg begins at the University of Illinois: the term *replicator technology* is coined to describe self-expanding information distribution.
1972
• First distributed email system is invented.
Telnet, a commercial version of ARPANET, becomes the first public packet data service.
1973
• First international connections to ARPANET.
FTP is born.
1974
Transmission Control Program (TCP), the basis of packet network communication, is specified.
1975
• First ARPANET mailing list MsgGroup is created.
1976
• First supercomputer, the Cray 1, is installed.
Apple Computer founded by Steve Jobs and Steve Wosniak.
Queen Elizabeth II becomes first head of state to send email.
1980
ARPANET now includes international satellite links.
Telnet, a commercial version of ARPANET, becomes the first public packet data service.
1981
• First BITNet (Because It's Time Network) link established at CUNY, connecting to Yale.
1982
Internet Protocol (IP), in use with TCP, becomes the ARPANET standard. The Internet becomes the name for a set of networks connected using TCP/IP.
• The smiley :-) is born on a Carnagie Mellon BBS 19-Sep-82 11:44
1983
The Computer is selected as the Time Magazine Man of the Year for 1982 appearing on the Jan 3 cover as the Machine of the Year.
1984
Domain Name Server (DNS) introduced.
• More than 1000 hosts on the Internet.
1986
Guide becomes the first popular commercial general-purpose hypertext system.
NSFNet backbone created at 56kb.
1987
Hypercard introduced for the Apple Macintosh.
• More than 10,000 Internet hosts.
1988
• MCI Mail is connected to NSFNET through CNRI for "experimental use", providing the first sanctioned commercial use of the Internet.
Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is born.
1989
World Wide Web project proposed at CERN.
CWI GMD and INRIA combine to form ERCIM.
• More than 100,000 Internet hosts.
• Berlin Wall falls in November.
1990
ARPANET is formally decommissioned and the remaining hardware dismantled.
Archie (Archive Server) released at McGill.
1991
National Science Foundation NSFNET lifts commercial restrictions on their T3 network, opening a means for electronic commerce.
Gopher is released by the University of Minnesota.
Wide Area Information Servers (WAIS) go online for document search, browse, and publish.
US High Performance Computing Act creates the National Research and Education Network (NREN), to link research and educational institutions, government, and industry in every State. Requires the Department of Defense (DoD), through the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), to support research and development of advanced fiber optics technology, switches, and protocols. Requires the National Science Foundation (NSF) to provide computing and networking infrastructure support for all science and engineering disciplines and support basic research and human resource development in high-performance computing and advanced high-speed computer networking.
1992
• More than 1,000,000 Internet hosts.
• The World Bank goes online.
Veronica and Jughead follow Archie to briefly compete as popular internet search tools.
World Wide Web released by CERN.
1st International WWW Conference - Geneva
1993
• The White House and the UN go online.
National Information Infrastructure (NII) initiative, also called The Information Superhighway, to define a broadband convergence of telecommunications, information technology, and the entertainment industry, becomes law.
InterNIC formed by the NSF to provide domain name registration, directory database and information services.
NCSA Mosaic released.
2nd International WWW Conference - Chicago
• Annual growth rate of WWW hits 341,634%.
• Annual growth rate of Gopher drops from over 300,000% to 997%
1994
MIT/LCS and CERN, with support from DARPA and the European Commission form the W3C.
NASA Research and Education Network (NREN) becomes an experimental backbone at five NASA science centers.
YAHOO! founded by two Stanford PhD students.
3rd International WWW Conference - Darmstadt
1995
INRIA (France) becomes the first European W3C host.
• WWW becomes the most popular Internet service.
• Registration of domain names is no longer free.
Netscape goes public.
RealAudio (forerunner to RealVideo) is born.
Java programming language is born.
Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) can deliver interactive 3D objects across the internet.
4th International WWW Conference - Boston
1996
Keio University (Japan) becomes the first W3C host in Asia.
• The Electronic Funds Transfer (EFT) Provision in the Debt Collection Improvement Act (DCIA) open the door for financial institutions to complete financial transactions via the WWW.
• The WWW browser wars are fought primarily between Netscape and Microsoft.
Internet2 is formed as a consortium led by universities working in partnership with industry and government to develop and deploy advanced internet technologies.
5th International WWW Conference - Paris
1997
American Registry for Internet Numbers (ARIN) is established to handle admin and registration of IP numbers to the geographical areas formerly handled by Network Solutions (InterNIC).
6th International WWW Conference - Santa Clara
1998
• US Depart of Commerce (DoC) releases Green Paper then White Paper plan to privatize DNS.
• Netscape opens the source code for the Netscape Navigator browser to the public domain.
The Great Spam Truce results in adoption of the opt-in email list. Legislation to let consumers sue advertisers is endorsed by all.
Microsoft buys Hotmail for $400 million.
US Department of Justice sues Microsoft for anti-trust violations.
Internet Corp for Assigned Numbers (ICANN) becomes DNS admin.
US Postal Service allows stamps to be downloaded from the Web.
Abilene, a high-speed broadband network for Internet2 is announced by Vice President Al Gore at a White House ceremony.
AT&T buys IBM's data networking business for $5 billion cash.
Google Inc opens its door in Menlo Park CA. It was a garage door.
7th International WWW Conference - Brisbane
1999
First Internet Bank of Indiana becomes the first full-service bank available only on the Internet.
US Department of Defense (DoD) requires all US military systems to connect via NIPRNET.
Abilene becomes operational at 2.5 gbps.
Wi-Fi Alliance formed to certify interoperability of wireless LAN products based on IEEE 802.11.
Pyra releases Blogger which popularizes blogging with mainstream internet users.
8th International WWW Conference - Toronto
2000
The Infinite Monkey Protocol Suite to enable distributed collaboration is proposed.
9th International WWW Conference - Amsterdam
2001
Gigabit Research and Education Network (GÉANT), becomes operational in Europe.
Firewall Enhancement Protocol (FEP) proposed.
10th International WWW Conference - Hong Kong
2002
• America Online, Verizon Online, WorldCom Inc., Earthlink and a handful of other ISP giants form the US Internet Service Provider Association (USISPA).
Warchalking, drawing a chalk symbol on a wall or pavement to indicate a wi-fi hotspot, is born.
11th International WWW Conference - Honolulu
2003
• ERCIM takes over the role of European W3C Host from INRIA.
• Abilene upgrade to 10 gbps fiber optics completed.
12th International WWW Conference - Budapest
2004
• Microsoft webserver market share falls below 1999 levels.
Google Inc IPO jumps to $100 a share raising over $2 billion.
• USA - the Induce Act would hold technology companies liable for manufacturing products that encourage people to infringe copyright.
• ICANN Releases 3-Year Strategic Plan for Public Comment.
13th International WWW Conference - New York
2005
• Garrett Graff becomes the first blogger to be given press credentials by the White House.
14th International WWW Conference - Chiba Japan


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